Administration of medicines
List of Diseases
Deficiency and Metabolic diseases
Physiological Constants of the Pigeon
30 - 60 cc per day (45 cc average)
1 litre of water for 20 pigeons.
Increase to double in the Summer
(60 - 100 cc)
30 grams per day (average)
B. - Preventive or
C. - Helping
|Subcutaneous (underneath the skin of the neck)|
|1. - By capsules or tablets (individual treatment)
2. - In the drink water: administer the right amount of water that is consumed per day according to the time of the year (winter or summer). The vitamins in the water from a day to another, will be inactivated.
3. - In the food: it is not recommended.
4. - Topics: with a small stick and cotton (Muguet case, trichomoniasis, smallpox, etc)
It doesn't produce the wished treatment and causes resistance or to be dependent.
It can cause very detrimental effects (case sulfas)
1 coffee spoon = 1.5 - 2 grs.
1 teaspoon = 3,5 - 4 grs.
1 soupspoon = 8 - 10 grs.
1 soup spoonful = 15 grs.
20 drops = 1 millilitre = 1 cc
|Whenever antibiotics are administered
(tetraciclinas, tilosina, eritromicina, etc), it is
necessary to provide vitamins, electrolytes, amino acids
and reconstituyentes of the intestinal flora. (Ex.: acid
In the case of administering TETRACICLINAS (terramicina MR), suppress the GRIT during those days as the calcium salts precipitate the antibiotic and they inactivate it. Do not use interactive products simultaneously: they can produce interference, cooperation, antagonism or it can change the effect desired.
Prophylaxis or prevention
|Disinfection of the loft and all the facilities:
at the present time IODINE POVIDONA is the antiseptic par
excellence. It has bacterial, viricida and fungicida
action. Apply it with spray whenever we clean the loft (
minimum once a week).
Dilution: 20 cc in 1 litre of water.
LIST OF DISEASES
|SALMONELOSIS Or PARATIFOSIS|
|PASTEURELOSIS Or COLERA|
|NEW CASTLE Or PARAMIXOVIRUS|
|DIFTERO - SMALLPOX|
|CADIDIASIS Or MUGUET|
|PROTOZOARIOS||PLASMODIOSIS Or MALARIA|
Disease of youngsters that causes an early death without specific symptoms. The cured adult pigeon becomes into carriers and continue eliminating salmonellas, reason why it is preferable to eliminate them. When hatching they can transmit the disease through the pores of the rind of eggs
|CAUSAL AGENT:||Salmonella Typhimurium|
|TRANSMISSION:||Oral: By the food or the drinking water.
Aerial: By inhalation of the dust.
Ovarian: Of the ovary to the egg.
|1 - Intestinal:
diarrea with thick lees surrounded by
snots, elements nondigested in dirty water of brown or
green, and frothy color. Thickening of the sewer.
2 - Articulte: of the internal goes to the blood and from there to the joints of greater movement (elbow). Fallen wing
3 - Organic: it attacks all the devices pronouncing itself with a short breath and general weakening.
4 - Nervous: it attacks the brain and the spinal marrow producing:
- loss of balance
- tortícolis (similar to New Castle)
|DIAGNOSE||Serologic, wich means the antibodies of the blood of the infected animals.|
Minimum 15 days.
and disinfecting (at least weekly)
1 - 2 days of antibiotics every 15 days
|IMPORTANT:||It is a ZOONOSE (it can infect the man by a very close contact).|
It can attack a few pigeons, as thus also to provoke an epidemic. Normally it finishes in a fatal mode. The overpopulation and the lack of hygiene are of the more important causing factors.
|CAUSAL AGENT:||Pasteurella multocida|
|SYMPTOMS:||High fever 42 º - 43º C
Death between 24 - 48 hs.
|PROPHYLAXIS:||Cleaning and disinfecting (iodine povidona)|
|CAUSAL AGENT:||Hemophilus influenzae|
|SYMPTOMS:||Tears in both eyes at the same time. Swelling of the lacrimal coats (owl head). Slight nasal unloading (snot)|
|DIAGNOSE:||Bacteriological examination of nasal and ocular secretions.|
|TREATMENT:||Antibiotics - Vitamins.|
|PROPHYLAXIS:||Cleaning and disinfecting (iodine povidona)|
Microplasma - Microorganism halfway between a bacterium and a virus. Cured pigeons acquire immunity, however they happen to be carrying and transmitting the illness to the youngsters. This disease generally is associate to the ORNITOSIS.
Many pigeons are carrying and the diseases appear after the effort of a difficult competition.
|SYMPTOMS:||Nasal, watery humid secretion and becomes sticky
and mucous. Inside the mouth a gray, rough scab.
Tongue and sticky palate. Very disagreeable breath (repulsive). Nose of dirty gray color. Very difficult breathing.
Very strong noises at night. Very slow evolution. It is rare to have an generalised infection but when happens the diminishing of the defences (stress, the races, lack of hygiene, overpopulation etc.) can cause deaths.
|DIAGNOSE:||Serológic examination of the antibodies of the attacked pigeons.|
|TREATMENT:||Tilosina (Tylla MR) ENROFLOXACINA. Administer it to 5 days consecutive|
|PROPHYLAXIS:||Deep disinfection. Preventive treatments can be done in the weeks frees of races, and mainly after a hard one.|
|SYMPTOMS:||Similars to an influenza.
Nasal and ocular secretion similar to the micoplasmosis
diarrea----> slow thinning ---> death.
|DIAGNOSE:||Laboratory (Stamp method)|
|TREATMENT:||Clortetraciclinas + Tilosina.|
|IMPORTANT:||EYE IS A ZOONOSE.|
|NEW CASTLE Or PARAMIXOVIRUS|
|CAUSAL AGENT:||Bird Paramixovirus type 1|
|SYMPTOMS:||1 - Digestive upheavals:
Virus - vicerotropo
- Liquid Excrements ----> (as water)
- Intense thirst (it can increase to 4-5 times the consumption)
2 - Nervous upheavals:
- vírus neurotropo
- Slight tremors of head.
- Difficulty to peck grains (it affects the optical nerve).
- Problems of balance: it falls for a side or back towards (pirouettes)
- Torticolis: of 0º - 180 º
- Problems in sight with discolouration of an eye.
- Paralysis of a wing or the two.
- Paralysis of a leg or the two.
3 - Breath upheavals (Vírus neumotropo)
- Conjuntivitis, coriza, death rattle. (They are not frequent)
|DIAGNOSE:||Laboratory, by examination of the blood.|
eliminate sick pigeons of small value.
To isolate the pigeons that we want to treat. Reduce to normality the water consumption (50 cs per day).
To fulfill the food trays or to give them to eat with a sleeve or syringe.
To administer together:
- Antibiotics (Tetraciclinas, enrofloxacina, etc.)
- Amino acids
- Levamisol (to stimulate the defenses).
|PROPHYLAXIS:||Cleaning and disinfecting of the loft.|
Dead virus: or inactivated in watery solution.
Intramuscular or subcutaneous.
Immunity: a year COLOMBOVAC (Holland)
b) Alive virus: Cepa B1 or La Sota.
In the water of drink and by nasal or ocular drop.
Immunity: 2 months. On the 4th day of applied the vaccine to the alive virus it is advisable to make the following recipe:
- Levamisol: 1-2 days
- Vitamins, Antibiotics and Amino acids: during 4-5 days.
|IMPORTANT:||It is an obligation of the Fancier to denounce or to communicate to his society a bud of this disease in his loft, so that all the other people can take their own precautions.|
It is little what its known about this disease caused by a virus that has its preference by the devices of the lymphatic system (ganglia, bazo). Thats where its name comes from.
|SYMPTOMS:||During the breeding it is very common to observe the unequal growth of the youngsters. The frequent vomits are one of the symptoms most characteristic of the disease.|
|PROPHYLAXIS:||Cleaning and disinfection of the pigeons.|
Virus disease of recent appearance. There have been some cases in the Buenos Aires.
|CAUSAL AGENT:||Borrelia columbae (virus)|
|INFECT:||By the water of drink, food, fecal material, dust, pricked of mosquito, wounds, etc. Youngsters are most susceptible. The adults rare time become sick.|
|SYMPTOMS:||Typical crust formation white yellowish, difficult to give off (blood ones), in eyes, nose, peak, toggle of the legs, mouth, throat, around the sewer.|
|TREATMENT:||To separate the excrescences and to apply dye topics of iodine. Give antibiotic and vitamins (mainly vitamin A) during 4-5 days.|
|PROPHYLAXIS:||Cleaning and disinfection (iodine povidona)|
|IMMUNITY:||The cured pigeon acquires immunity for a lifetime.|
|CAUSAL AGENT:||A tiny parasite. Two species:
Clinical: proper of the adult pigeon. There is no symptom but it diminishes the sport perfomance. There is a certain immunity.
Itself: It attacks young pigeons at the third week of age. Watery and faded faecal material, sometimes with blood (never liquid and green). Loss of weight and forms. Loss of color of the rainbow of the eye, changes grayish. Mucous of the mouth and the throat becomes pale (anemia). Opaque plumage.
|DIAGNOSE:||Analysis of faecal material.|
|TREATMENT:||Sulfamidas "the continued use in the eye, causes damages at
Toltazuril (Baycox Mr.)
|PROPHYLAXIS:||Alternate the above-mentioned drugs every 30 days in a preventive form. Possibility to use this treatment together with the one against trichomonas. Once finished the treatment, give vitamins during 3-4 days. Deep cleaning and general disinfection (do not forget that the eggs of coccidios reproduce in the accumulated faecal matter in the floor or trays being necessary three conditions: temperature, humidity and oxygen. Therefore we must prevent the humidity).|
The cycle where the egg of the parasite is eliminated by the faecal matter, goes to the ground, is developed the larva and again it is ingested, matured and again eliminated it is of 20 days for that reason it recommends the preventive treatment every 21 days)
|SYMPTOMS:||Few roundworms cause little damage, but if the
number increases too much it produces a reduction of the
sports perfomance and inflict many casualties.
- Anorexy (loss of appetite)
- Loss of weight.
- Little consistent faecal material.
- Intense thirst.
- Opaque and made bristle plumage.
- we can see the parasites in the excrements and sometimes in vomits. The damages caused by these parasites are imputed to 3 reasons.
1 - The wounds that cause in intestinal wall
2 - Because they absorb many elements nutritious.
3 - Because they excrete toxic substances.
|DIAGNOSE:||Analysis of fecal material|
|TREATMENT:||There are different drugs:
- Levamisol -RIPERCOL MR
- Ivermectina (Ivomec Mr)
|PROPHYLAXIS:||Alternate the treatment with the
above-mentioned drugs every 30 days. In this way we
diminished the possibility of dependence to the drug. Do not forget that the LEVAMISOL is
an excellent inmunomodulator as well (stimulating of the
defences) therefore its use is essential whenever we
vaccinate against New Castle.
The old animals develop a certain immunity.
Cleaning - hygiene. Disinfection
Is considered that this parasite is present in 50 % of the pigeons, but particularly is more sensible in the young animals.
|SYMPTOMS:||A slight infection practically does not produce
symptoms, only diminution in the sport perfomance. But if
the infection is serious, youngsters can die one week
after starting the disease.
DIARREA ----> THINNING -----> DEATH
|TREATMENT:||Idem ascaridiosis. (NO PIPERAZINA)|
Of this infection I only want to reveal that it is important as prophylaxis, to fight all the intermediate hosts (larvae of mosquitos, cockroaches, weevils, slimy, snails, etc) the tapeworms or the ring of tapeworms are sometimes visible in the sewer of the pigeon. It is common that they appear in pigeons that been have lost for a certain period. The treatment is individual - Niclosamida.
Columbae (a protozoário)
We considered that 80% of the old pigeons are carrying, being able to happen inadvertent. It is used to say that the oldiers live in balance with trichomonas in ominous consequences. In the youngsters is fatal.
- Spiny plumage.
- Viscous diarrea ---> thinning.
- Intense thirst
- Anorexy (lack of appetite)
- Disnea (difficult breading: penguin position)
- white and yellow spots in the mouth and throat.
|DIAGNOSE:||Microscopic examination of isopods of crop and esophagus.|
1 gr. by liter of water during 7 days.
|PROPHYLAXIS:||Hygiene and general disinfection.|
|IMUNIDADE:||A small amount of trichomonas in pigeons with good health causes its own antibodies.|
Disease of the costal zones (bordering to the rivers)
|CAUSAL AGENT:||A esporozoario of kind PLASMODIUM|
|EPIZOOTIOLOGIA:||There are three factors that condition the
maintenance and development of the malaria:
- carrying or sick Birds.
- transmitting Mosquitos (culex, haedes, anopheles).
- the temperature, rains and the flora of region (essential elements for the reproduction of the mosquito)
- Fever it raises and low)
- Anemia (of there the eye and the white mucous)
- general Weakness
- Death in the youngsters.
After this acute phase, where the symptoms are evident, the plasmodiosis enters a period of diminution of their clinical manifestations and parasitemia to endoglobular arriving at a stage of normality between the 30 - 40 days of begun the symptoms.
|DIAGNOSE:||Examination of the blood (method of Giemsa).|
used in the human malaria:
For ex.: the cloroquina or ARALEN MR (2 mg by kg of weight that is 1 mg. by pigeon. 3 doses day by average.
|IMUNIDADE||The cured animals develop certain degree of immunity|
It has a definitive host, a fly haemotografe (he is fed on blood), pseudolynchia canariensis.
The intermediary host is the pigeon. It is necessary that the infested fly resentment the pigeon to developed this disease .
|SYMPTOMS:||Seen only in the summer months . The symptoms
are very similar to those of the plasmodiosis, so its
possible a confusion (due to time and symptoms).
The flies that suck infected blood are able to transmit the haemoproteosis 15 days late and between 25 to 30 days later begin the symptoms:
- Recurrent fever (it raises and low) 43 º C
- diarrea: White lees or yellowish, liquid and persistent.
- Disnea: increase of the respiratory frequency.
- Gradual Anemia
- Caquexia: Weakness when the disease becomes chronicle.
|DIAGNOSE:||Examination of the blood (method of Giemsa)|
|PROPHYLAXIS:||Fight the fly: Kaotrina|
Some authors describe this disease together with the trichomoniasis and others speak of an associate micotic disease due to Vitamin A deficiency.
|CAUSAL AGENT:||a fungus: CANDIA ALBICANS|
|SYMPTOMS:||White or yellowish spots (easy to give off) in all the mucosa of the mouth and the throat.|
|TREATMENT:||Topic applications with iodine povidona to 10% or weak iodine dye (diluted with glycerin) in the spots. Administer Vitamin A.|
THE PROLONGED STORAGE OF FOODS
- GIVE SUNSHINE TO THE GRAINS BEFORE FEED
- VITAMIN A
- LOFT DISINFECTION
|CAUSAL AGENT:||A fungus, Aspergilium fumigatus. It reproduces quickly in the straw of the nests, or in the humid food.|
|SYMPTOMS:||It is an infection of the group of the
respiratory diseases. It appears
under two forms:
Respiratory difficulty (disnea)
Greenish excrescences on the tongue and palate.
Bare skin and with fractures of pens
|TREATMENT:||NONE. Does not exists one that is effective|
|PROPHYLAXIS:||Dry and well aired
Avoid the humidity in the food.
Disinfection (iodo povidona)
|LICE, ACARUSES, DIPTEROS (flies),
With respect to the subject I am not going to extend, I will only say that lice, mites, flies and garrapatas (a kind of aracnideos) exists in the pigeons and that cause damages in the plumage, sometimes quite seriously. The best way to fight them is with an aspersion bath but never with an immersion one. It is also necessary to consider to not use products derived from the piretrins (by: kaotrina) because is toxic for the birds, and although poisoning symptoms are not pronounced can cause low perfomance in the races.
CARBARIL 5 % (in powder)
NEVER USE GAMEXANE
DEFICIENCY AND METABOLIC DISEASES
VITAMINS AND THEIR DEFICIENCIES
|It is practically impossible to produce a hipervitaminosis or overdose of vitamins. All the ingested excess, the animal the metabolises and eliminates it.|
|The existing vitamins are organic substances in
foods, incapable to be synthesized by the organism in
adequate quantities being used in small doses, for the
normal functioning and maintenance of the organism and
According to this definition, vitamins must be supplied periodically in order to prevent upheavals.
(necessities per day and pigeon)
in the formation of the sanguineous capillaries. Form
leaves from pigments of the retina (eye).
Acts in the formation of all the epithelial coatings. It is used helping in infectious and antiparasitic diseases. Is also used as anti-stress substance and following the vaccinations.
|Deficiency:||Sometimes it leads to the destruction of the eye (it is resembled to criza). Viscous exudate in the nasal graves. Patognomónicas are considered the nodules or white pustules as large as a pin head that are seen in post-mouth, pharynx, origin of the esophagus and stomach.|
The organism animal synthesizes it from the ultra-violet rays, so its very important of the sun in the loft.
|Action:||Its fundamental action is to promote the absorption and fixation of calcium and phosphorus in the skeleton.|
of the breastbone.
Eggs with thin and soft rind.
Fragile peak and soft nails.
Delay of the growth.
Problems in the plumage.
A prolonged deficiency leads to the " raquitismo " (rháchîtis = to meager)
|Action:||It acts in the maintenance of the reproductive function of the birds. It increases the fertility of eggs.|
Encefalomacia: motor upheavals and ventral flexion of the head.
White muscular dystrophy, striae throughout muscular fibers of pectoral muscles.
|Action:||It takes part in the normal process of the coagulation of the blood. Its used helping in the treatments of diseases that produce anaemia (coccidiosis, etc.)|
|Deficiency:||causes hemorrhages----> Anaemia|
It is practically the only vitamin that the organism of the birds can synthesize in sufficient amounts.
main action is to form and to maintain the intercellular
material. Also it acts in the spare part of calcium and
Its used like antistress and helping in parasitic infectious diseases.
|VITAMIN B1 Or TIAMINE:>|
the anti-neuritic vitamin (antinervous)
Its also necessary in the metabolism of carbon hydrates.
- Nervous symptom, paralysis of the legs and the muscles.
- Atrophy of the genital devices
|VITAMIN B2 RIVOFLAVINE:|
Delay in the growth
Paralysis of the legs, supports the tarsos and doubles the fingers inwards
|VITAMIN B6 Or PIRIDOXINE:|
(loss of appetite)
Delay in the growth
Nervous symptoms: spasmodic convulsions, jumps.
|NICOTINIC ACID Or NICOTINAMIDE:|
|Action:||Essential in the metabolism of carbon hydrates (sugars)|
Inflammations in mouth, pharynx, and esophagus.
Inflammation of the knee and to hoop the legs.
|Deficiency:||It can produce dermatitis in the legs (rough legs, with crack and necrosis)|
- Delay in the growth
- Problems in the plumage,
- PEROSIS: It is a joint deficiency with the lack of manganese (Mn).
Produces a landslide of the sinew of the gastronemious outside the bony pulley of the tarsius joint therefore the bones suffers a torsion outwards. (most of the times a single leg)
symptoms are very difficult to separate of the symptoms
caused by the deficiency of Biotine.
|VITAMIN B12 Or CIANOCOBALAMINE:|
|Action:||It is the so called antianemic vitamin. Along with Copper and the Cobalto, are indispensable in the formation of the elements of the blood (eritropoyesis)|
|Deficiency:||Delay in the growth
Upheavals in the moulting
Low in the fertility of eggs. It is important to say that all the vitamins of group B are less stable than the others (they oxidize quickly) for that reason must be used in amounts that are daily consumed and not to leave them in the water throughs until the other day.
It is also important to know that the vitamins of group B, act to each other interrelated, therefore the deficiency of one of them means that we must provide the called " B Complex ".
|Indispensable substances for many processes of
the animal organism. In the nature they are under
different salts form. It is important to say that when we
provide mineral complexes to the birds these regulate
their ingestion according to their necessities.
Next some of the most important minerals and its main action within the organism of the birds:
|It acts in the absorption of the water and its later elimination (diuresis)|
CALCIUM (Ca) and PHOSFORO (P)
|Are fundamental along with vitamin D in the formation of the bones|
|Acts in the operation of the cardiac muscle
Also acts on the diuresis.
|It is related intimately with Ca and P.|
|Is fundamental for the normal operation of the gland thyroid.|
|Necessary for the growth and the reproduction. Its deficiency as we saw before causes PEROSIS|
COPPER (Cu) and COBALT (Co)
|Are fundamental together with the B12 vitamin, in the eritorpoyesis (this means formation of the elements of the blood: globules)|
|Essential component and the hemoglobina of the blood.|
|They are substances that the animal organism
synthesizes from ingested nitrogen, being these the base
of the formation of proteins. (a protein is a chain of
The essential amino acids are those that the organism does not synthesize in suitable amounts to maintain the growth or the normal nutrition, so they must appear in the diet that we give our birds.
Next I detail to the 10 essential amino acids and their requirements by pigeon and day:
|SULFAMETOXAZOL||Bactereostátic||P.O.: 100mg/pigeon/day||Can form renales crystals|
|TRIMETROPIN||Bacteriostátic||P.O.: 10-20 mg./pigeon
200 mg/litre of water
|Use combined with sulfametoxazol|
|P.O.: 7.5 mg/pigeon/day||Ample active specter against micoplasma|
|Bactericidal||P.O.: 5-10 mg/pigeon
200 mg/litre of water
|Ample active specter against micoplasma|
|Bactericidal||Not recommend its use in birds|
|Bacteriostátic||P.O.:12-25 mg/pigeon||Indicated in micoplasmosis|
|NEOMICINA||Bactericidal||P.O.:5-25 mg/pigeon||Used in infectious diarreas|
|ESTREPTOMICINA||Bactericida||P.O.:50-100 mg/pigeon||Previous item|
|CLORANFENICOL||Bacteriostátic||P.O.:50 mg/pigeon/2 per day||Prolonged administration causes fatal anemia.|
|CLORTETRACICLINA||Bacteriostátic ample specter||P.O.:15-25 mg/pigeon
day/1-1.5 g/litre water
|Retire the grit during its administration|
water during 3 weeks
2 x day/15 days
(helminthiasis - to have worms in the intestines)
|PIPERAZINA||Ascaris adults||P.O.:0.5 g/pigeon/2days|
|P.O.:10-20 mg/pigeon, 2 days~400 mg/litre water, repeat at 15 days||Can produce temporary vomits.|
|Parasites internal and external||P.O.: 0.1 mg/pigeon repeat at 10 days|
|MEBENDAZOL||Ascaris capilária and Taenias||P.O.:5-7 mg/pigeon/
|Can diminish the fertility and affect plumage in the moult|
Vermix A MR
|Ascaris capilaria and Taenias||Previous item|
5 days 1gr/litre of water
5 days/0.5 gr/litre
|An overdose is very toxic|
5 days/ in water 2gr/litre
0.25 g/litre water. Give 3 days rest 3 and repeat 2 days more
|Produces calculations at renal level|
|SULFAMERAZINA||Coccidios||P.O.:1.5 g/litre of water||Previous item|
|SULFADIMETOXINA||Coccidios||P.O.:0.5 g/litre of water||Previous item|
|CLAZURIL||Coccidios||P.O.: 2.5 mg/pigeon 1 day||Low or null toxicity|
|Coccidios||P.O.:7-15 mg/pigeon 2 days||Previous item|
|AMPROLIUM||Coccidios||P.O.: 20 mg/pigeon|
to the use of several technical words, mainly active
ingredients or substances